死亡的教育安樂死十幾年我的暑假工讀生跟我說 想到死 怕極了我相當訝異 (那時 我祖父母 外組父 父親都過世了)我曾有親人跟我說過日子無聊死了 (這真是說來話長....)
今天讀到漢先生的這篇 (我1971年"新生訓練"第一次看見任建築系系主任的漢先生)想起1971年在東海大學大一英文課的談論安樂死我們每個人個人的"經驗"都相當有限安樂死立法之難 在於人們可以/可能 有千萬種無法遇期的 非理性的遭遇.....
梁實秋在手術台上要求更多的光 (這光竟然與哥德說的一樣) 最特別的是季季說他走後近二年 第二任太太整理/取走遺物
1977 University of Essex
Maurizio Bellacosa, a professor of criminal law at Luiss University in Italy who has often argued cases before the Court of Cassation, said that the application of that doctrine in a shoplifting case “has a certain novelty.”
意大利國際社會科學自由大學(Luiss University)刑法教授毛里奇奧·貝拉科薩(Maurizio Bellacosa)經常討論上訴法庭中的案件，他說，在商店盜竊案件中應用這一原則“確實很新奇”。
Food Theft in Italy May Not Be a Crime, Court Rules
By GAIA PIANIGIANI and SEWELL CHANMay 6, 2016
GAIA PIANIGIANI, SEWELL CHAN2016年5月6日
ROME — Stealing food from a supermarket may not be a crime in Italy if you are homeless and hungry, the nation’s highest appeals court has ruled.
In a case that has drawn comparisons to“Les Misérables,” the Supreme Court of Cassation threw out the conviction of a homeless man from Ukraine, Roman Ostriakov, who was caught trying to take 4.07 euros — about $4.70 — worth of cheese and sausage from a store in Genoa without paying for it. A trial court sentenced him in February 2015 to six months in jail and a fine of €100.
在這個堪與《悲慘世界》(Les Misérables)相對比的案件中，來自烏克蘭的無家可歸男子羅曼·奧斯特里亞科夫(Roman Ostriakov)在熱那亞一家商店被試圖偷竊價值4.07歐元（約合30元人民幣）的奶酪和香腸被抓到，最高上訴法院判決他不用為此付款。 2015年2月，初審法庭宣判他需為此入獄六個月，付罰款100歐元。
“The condition of the defendant and the circumstances in which the merchandise theft took place prove that he took possession of that small amount of food in the face of the immediate and essential need for nourishment, acting therefore in a state of need,” and therefore the theft “does not constitute a crime,” the appellate court wrote in its decision, which was reported on Monday by the Italian news agency ANSA.
The court's decision went far beyond what the appeal in the case had sought. Valeria Fazio, the prosecutor at the Genoa court where the trial was held, said in a telephone interview that her office understood that Mr. Ostriakov had stolen only out of need, and had appealed in hopes that the court might set a more lenient sentence.
But the court decided that he “doesn’t have to be punished at all,” Ms. Fazio said.
The court has yet to release its full reasoning in the case, but Gherardo Colombo, a former member of the Supreme Court of Cassation, said it seemed to rely on an Italian legal doctrine: “Ad impossibilia nemo tenetur.”
法庭尚未公佈此次判決的完整解釋，但是最高法院的前成員蓋拉爾多·科隆博(Gherardo Colombo)說，這個判決似乎是依據一項意大利的法律原則：“Ad impossibilia nemo tenetur”。
The term is Latin for “No one is expected to do the impossible.”
“They rarely apply the ‘state of necessity,’ ” Mr. Bellacosa said, and when they do, it is generally in cases “like a castaway who fights with another shipwreck victim for the last raft he has to save his life.”
When examining thefts by poor people, he said, “usually the court classifies these cases as smaller crimes, but crimes, as poverty is considered avoidable through the social support system.”
In contrast with the American legal system, the decisions of the Court of Cassation do not necessarily create binding precedents for lower courts to follow. But Mr. Bellacosa said the decision in the Ostriakov case “is a new principle, and it might lead to a more frequent application of the state of necessity linked to poverty situations.”
The ruling quickly generated a heated response in Italy.
“For the supreme judges, the right to survival has prevailed over the right to property,” Massimo Gramellini, an editor at La Stampa, a newspaper based in Turin, wrote in an opinion column. “In America that would be blasphemy. And here as well, some conformists will talk about a legitimation of proletarian expropriation.”
“對於最高法院法官來說，生存權高於物權，”都靈報紙《新聞報》(La Stampa)編輯馬西莫·格拉梅利尼(Massimo Gramellini)在報紙的觀點欄目中寫道。 “如果在美國，這簡直就是一種褻瀆神聖的行為。在這裡也是一樣，有些墨守成規的人會說，這是把無產階級徵收他人財物的行為合法化。”
In the 1970s, when Italy was rocked by violent leftist groups like the Red Brigades, radicalized youths “plundered supermarkets with impunity in the name of the working class,” but they stole “caviar and Champagne,” Mr. Gramellini added. “Now, people don't steal to pursue an ideal, but to fill up their stomach.”
20世紀70年代，“紅旅”(Red Brigades)等暴力左派團體令意大利陷入動盪，激進的年輕人“在工人階級的名義下洗劫超市，認為此舉無罪”，但他們卻偷竊“魚子醬和香檳”，格拉梅利尼說。 “現在，人們不是為理想而偷竊，而是為了填飽肚子。”
Another commentator, Goffredo Buccini, writing approvingly of the decision in the Italian daily Corriere della Sera, likened the current situation to the period right after World War II, when the Italian economy was in ruins.
另一位評論者戈弗雷多·布奇尼(Goffredo Buccini)在意大利每日發行的《晚郵報》(Corriere della Sera)上發表文章，讚許這個判決，他把目前的形勢同“二戰”後的時期聯繫起來，當時意大利的經濟已經徹底崩潰。
“As the law is nothing else but the box where our living together takes shape, it was unthinkable that jurisprudence did not take reality into account,” Mr. Buccini wrote. He cited statistics from Confcommercio, a trade association, showing that thefts resulting from hunger have been on the rise in recent years.
“法律無非是一個箱子，是由我們的生活共同塑造而成，無法想像法理學不考慮現實狀況，”布奇尼寫道。他引述貿易團體 Confcommercio 的數據，表明近年來，因飢餓引發的盜竊案件正在逐步上升。
Italy has managed only a fitful recovery from the financial crisis that began in 2008. According to the World Bank, gross domestic product per capita is about where it was in 2010, and the International Monetary Fund projects that the economy will grow by a sluggish 1.3 percent this year. In some Italian cities, homelessness has become more prevalent.