2011年6月21日 星期二

R&D Ruminations / Math Pathways blogs (the Carnegie Foundation)

R&D Ruminations blog

Announcing the R&D Ruminations blog

The Carnegie Foundation has launched a new blog — R&D Ruminations — to provide information and news about educational research and development tied closely to the Carnegie Foundation’s work in improvement research.

The latest post, Learning by Doing: Building a Networked Improvement Community, drawn from a presentation at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, emphasizes the Foundation’s commitment to an approach to educational research and development that joins practitioners, researchers and developers in purposeful collective action to address a problem of practice.

As a subscriber to the Improvement Research mailing list, you will automatically be notified whenever there is a new post to the blog. If you would prefer to not receive these occasional emails, you can modify your subscription preferences by clicking on "Update your Profile" at the bottom of any email from us.

We hope you enjoy this new resource and thank you for your continued interest in our work.

The blog address is: rd.carnegiefoundation.org

Math Pathways blog

Announcing the Math Pathways blog

The Carnegie Foundation has launched a new blog —Math Pathways — to highlight our work in promoting student success in developmental education in community colleges.

The blog is managed by Gay Clyburn at Carnegie and Julie Phelps (Valencia College) and will include updates on our Statway™ and Quantway™ initatives, links to publications and articles that inform the work, and insights into what Carnegie is learning.

The latest post, “A Brief History of the Quantitative Literacy Movement: Arithmetic and Algebra Skills Aren’t Enough Any More,” is by Amy Getz of the Charles A. Dana Center, a partner in this work, and Rikki Blair, AMATYC past president and AMATYC Foundation Chair Professor Emeritus, who is also working with Carnegie.

As a subscriber to the Math Pathways mailing list, you will automatically be notified whenever there is a new post to the blog. If you would prefer to not receive these occasional emails, you can modify your subscription preferences by clicking on "Update your Profile" at the bottom of any email from us.

We hope you enjoy this new resource and thank you for your continued interest in our work.

The blog address is: pathways.carnegiefoundation.org

2011年6月20日 星期一

Living With Mistakes

David Brooks writes in The New York Times about Tim Harford’s new book, Adapt: Why Success Always Starts with Failure: Harford’s basic lesson is you have to design your life to make effective use of failures. You have to design systems of trial and error, or to use a natural word, evolution. Most successful enterprises are built through a process of groping and adaptation, not planning. The Russian thinker Peter Palchinsky understood the basic structure of smart change. First seek out new ideas and new things. Next, try new things on a scale small enough so that their failure is survivable. Then find a feedback mechanism so you can tell which new thing is failing and which is succeeding. That’s the model—variation, survivability, selection.

June 13, 2011, 12:01 pm

Living With Mistakes

Some of the blogs I follow—Marginal Revolution, Ezra Klein—have given ample attention to Tim Harford’s new book, “Adapt: Why Success Always Starts with Failure.” So I solipsistically assumed that everybody must be aware of it. But then I happened to glance at this book’s Amazon ranking, which as I write is down on the wrong side of 1,500. This is an outrage, people! For the good of the world, a bigger slice of humanity should be aware of its contents.

So I’m doing my bit to publicize it. (I don’t know Harford in any way, shape or form.)

Harford starts out with the premise that the world is a very complicated and difficult place. At the dawn of the automobile industry roughly 2,000 car companies sprang into being. Less than 1 percent of them survived. Even if you make it to the top, it is very hard to stay there. The historian Leslie Hannah identified the ten largest American companies in 1912. None of those companies ranked in the top 100 companies by 1990.

Harford’s basic lesson is you have to design your life to make effective use of failures. You have to design systems of trial and error, or to use a natural word, evolution. Most successful enterprises are built through a process of groping and adaptation, not planning.

The Russian thinker Peter Palchinsky understood the basic structure of smart change. First seek out new ideas and new things. Next, try new things on a scale small enough so that their failure is survivable. Then find a feedback mechanism so you can tell which new thing is failing and which is succeeding.

That’s the model—variation, survivability, selection.

Harford then illustrates how this basic process can work across a variety of contexts, from business to war to poetry. He’s an able guide to the world of human fallibility. For example, he cites James Reason who identifies three kinds of error. First, there are slips. In 2005 a young Japanese trader meant to sell one share of stock at 600,000 yen but accidentally sold 600,000 shares at 1 yen.

Then there are violations, when someone intentionally breaks the rules. This is what Bernie Madoff did. Then there are mistakes—things you do on purpose but with unintentional consequences.

Errors can be very hard for outsiders to detect. A study by Alexander Dyck, Adair Morse and Luigi Zingales looked at 216 allegations of corporate fraud. Regulators and auditors uncovered the fraud in only one out of six of those cases. It was people inside the companies who were most likely to report fraud, because they have local knowledge. And yet 80 percent of these whistleblowers regret having reported the crimes because of the negative consequences they suffered. This is not the way to treat people who detect error.

Harford is an economic journalist, so he doesn’t get into the psychological and spiritual traits you need to live with error and look it in the face, but he offers a very useful guide for people preparing to live in the world as it really is.

東海哀歌 (3)

前文說許老師的室友李祖原 和校長吳德耀
他同意我的看法: 這太招遙了 身為教友 (長老會)的他 同意十字架是謙卑的
他說當助教時 東海的路思義教堂正大興土木 (他和李爬過多高的鷹架....)
他們在學時 做禮拜是在"體育館" 做完禮拜十字架就撤離
平常很少見到十字架 反而更寶貴
(謙卑的建築物之一是東海隔路的小天主堂 -- 2009年我為了演講台中港路 重走一趟

當然我也與許老師說新體育館募款失敗案 (校長說過 想去找張忠謀 人家都不見)....
想起 "北大有胡適之 清華有體育館" (當然 新竹的發生過漏電意外.....)
東海沒大師 (有一次許老師到中國醫藥大學演講 前教育部長說 現在 東海只剩下.......)

2011年6月15日 星期三


教育界的(SCI收錄)質與量的迷思:中國 與台灣 2005/2011

忠信兄來訪 談他上周六訪問許達然老師和東海校園的感想
他對全體空間規劃自有其想法 我說應該寫出來讓後人參考

陳省身文選: (他說這種書網路上都有) 幾年前 陳先生在南開過世 他不會料到台灣海峽是"一邊一國"....當然 可能只有數學無國界....




1975年我從東海修了160學分(這學校的校友服務單位似想將我除名為快 很不幸 這樣還是改變不了衰弱之勢)…..不過, 專業的修習,卻是在數年後的各公司。譬如說,台灣飛利浦的工業工程,日本AMP 的工程/模具…..

2011年6月14日 星期二

教育界的(SCI收錄)質與量的迷思:中國 與台灣

台灣教育部的 不入流

****沒這樣嚴重啦 老師


彭明輝 我跟台大文學院副院長黃慕萱無冤無仇,但是這一篇悼文卻必須從這個名字開始。她替高等教育評鑑中心執行一項計畫,產出「全球五百大」排名,並發表了「2010世界大學科研論文質量評比」,號稱遠比既有各種評鑑方法更客觀。她自稱其方法是「以學術生產力、學術影響力、學術卓越性」三大方向作為評估構面,衡量的指標則是僅以SCI (Science Citation Index)與SSCI(Social Science Citation Index)之期刊論文為評比依據,以「近十一年論文數」、「當年論文數」、「近十一年論文被引次數」及「近二年論文被引次數」作為量化指標,也以各校全職教師數進行正規化處理。http://ranking.heeact.edu.tw/zh-tw/2010/TOP/100

















  2002年2月14日出版的《自然》雜誌 第732頁,《自然》雜誌非常及時地撰文指出SCI引文統計資料中存在的錯誤,並提醒人們在研究評價中謹慎使用SCI。



Chinese Science Bulletin》,SCI統計其1996年論文在1998年被引用147次,但我們發現有91次是錯引,在提醒謹慎使用SCI資料的同時,中國的科學家在呼籲要重視非英語國家的科技期刊的統計工作。




廣泛關注。德國的國際著名力學家舒勒(M. Schuler)在來信中寫道:“這篇論




















January 30, 2005

2011年6月13日 星期一








(他在節目上說 很難與英國(女)同學聊天 因為她們喜歡談/讀小說 ......所以他只好夜間去做實驗.....)

這位仁兄陳耀寬 在電視節目上竟然將Trinity說成什麼身心靈 也許是我沒聽過的神學

英國牛津大學無機化學博士(1997)/ 英國牛津大學無機化學博士獎學金(1993~1996)/ 英國牛津大學三一學院博士研究獎學金(1994和1996)

Trinity, Holy :三位一體;天主聖三:即聖父、聖子、聖神(靈)。唯一的天主,卻有三位。天主聖三奧跡包括愛的給予〔陽〕、愛的接受〔陰〕、愛的合一〔合〕。又稱 Blessed Trinity


Room for Debate: Who’s Ready for Kindergarten?
Room for Debate: Who’s Ready for Kindergarten?

The Berlin kindergarten where culture is king

A new kindergarten in Berlin is providing a daily dose of culture for its kiddies.

The idea behind this so-called culture kindergarten is to broaden horizons at an early age. It was set up by Germany’s Dussmann Group which is one of the country’s largest service providers. Hardy Graupner has the details from the suburb of Marzahn.

The Berlin kindergarten where culture is king

A new kindergarten in Berlin is providing a daily dose of culture for its kiddies.

2011年6月7日 星期二

Brain Calisthenics for Abstract Ideas


n. pl. - 柔軟體操, 運動
n. - 柔軟體操, 運動

Brain Calisthenics for Abstract Ideas

Like any other high school junior, Wynn Haimer has a few holes in his academic game. Graphs and equations, for instance: He gets the idea, fine — one is a linear representation of the other — but making those conversions is often a headache.

Or at least it was. For about a month now, Wynn, 17, has been practicing at home using an unusual online program that prompts him to match graphs to equations, dozens upon dozens of them, and fast, often before he has time to work out the correct answer. An equation appears on the screen, and below it three graphs (or vice versa, a graph with three equations). He clicks on one and the screen flashes to tell him whether he’s right or wrong and jumps to the next problem.

“I’m much better at it,” he said, in a phone interview from his school, New Roads in Santa Monica, Calif. “In the beginning it was difficult, having to work so quickly; but you sort of get used to it, and in the end it’s more intuitive. It becomes more effortless.”

For years school curriculums have emphasized top-down instruction, especially for topics like math and science. Learn the rules first — the theorems, the order of operations, Newton’s laws — then make a run at the problem list at the end of the chapter. Yet recent research has found that true experts have something at least as valuable as a mastery of the rules: gut instinct, an instantaneous grasp of the type of problem they’re up against. Like the ballplayer who can “read” pitches early, or the chess master who “sees” the best move, they’ve developed a great eye.

Now, a small group of cognitive scientists is arguing that schools and students could take far more advantage of this same bottom-up ability, called perceptual learning. The brain is a pattern-recognition machine, after all, and when focused properly, it can quickly deepen a person’s grasp of a principle, new studies suggest. Better yet, perceptual knowledge builds automatically: There’s no reason someone with a good eye for fashion or wordplay cannot develop an intuition for classifying rocks or mammals or algebraic equations, given a little interest or motivation.

“When facing problems in real-life situations, the first question is always, ‘What am I looking at? What kind of problem is this?’ ” said Philip J. Kellman, a psychologist at the University of California, Los Angeles. “Any theory of how we learn presupposes perceptual knowledge — that we know which facts are relevant, that we know what to look for.”

The challenge for education, Dr. Kellman added, “is what do we need to do to make this happen efficiently?”

Scientists have long known that the brain registers subtle patterns subconsciously, well before a person knows he or she is learning. In a landmark 1997 experiment, researchers at the University of Iowa found that people playing a simple gambling game with decks of cards reported “liking” some decks better than others long before they realized that those decks had cards that caused greater losses.. Some participants picked up the differences among decks after just 10 cards.

Experts develop such sensitive perceptual radar the old-fashioned way, of course, through years of study and practice. Yet there is growing evidence that a certain kind of training — visual, fast-paced, often focused on classifying problems rather then solving them — can build intuition quickly. In one recent experiment, for example, researchers found that people were better able to distinguish the painting styles of 12 unfamiliar artists after viewing mixed collections of works from all 12 than after viewing a dozen works from one artist, then moving on to the next painter. The participants’ brains began to pick up on differences before they could fully articulate them.

“Once the brain has a goal in mind, it tunes the perceptual system to search the environment” for relevant clues, said Steven Sloman, a cognitive scientist at Brown University. In time the eyes, ears and nose learn to isolate those signs and dismiss irrelevant information, in turn sharpening thinking.

Good teachers at all levels already have their own techniques to speed up this process — multiplication flash cards, tips to break down word problems, heuristic rhymes — but scientists are working to tune students’ eyes more systematically and to build understanding of very abstract concepts.

Fractions, for one. Most American middle school students, though they understand what fractions represent, don’t do so well when tested on their ability to change one fraction, like 4/3, to another, like 7/3, by adding or subtracting (many high school students bomb these tests, too).
Michal Czerwonka for The New York Times

PHYSICS IN ACTION From left, Christopher Allen, Andrea Leal and Gabe Boros conduct an experiment at New Roads. Gabe said he uses "tricks" to eliminate wrong answers.

Perceptual Learning

How does a student learn from gut insinct? Try these samples to find out.

Basic Math

Measurements and Graphing: Match the equation to the graph and learn to perceive basic measurement concepts.

Positive and Negative Feeback

Extreme Ball: Time a fan to blow and push a ball attached to rubber bands.

Extreme Population: Help your city reach a population of one million citizens.

Stabilize Ball: Time a fan to blow and stabilize a ball attached to rubber bands.

Stabilize Population: Help your city's population stabilize at 500,000 citizens.

In a 2010 study, researchers at UCLA and the University of Pennsylvania had sixth graders in a Philadelphia public school use a perception-training program to practice just this On the computer module, a fraction appeared as a block. The students used a “slicer” to cut that block into fractions and a “cloner” to copy those slices. They used these pieces to build a new block from the original one — for example, cutting a block that represented the fraction 4/3 into four equal slices, then making three more copies to produce a block that represented 7/3. The program immediately displayed an ‘X’ next to wrong answers and “Correct!” next to correct ones, then moved to the next problem. It automatically adjusted to each student’s ability, advancing slowly for some and quickly for others. The students worked with the modules individually, for 15- to 30-minute intervals during the spring term, until they could perform most of the fraction exercises correctly.

In a test on the skills given afterward, on problems the students hadn’t seen before, the group got 73 percent correct. A comparison group of seventh graders, who’d been taught how to solve such problems as part of regular classes, scored just 25 percent on the test.

“The impressive thing for me was that we went back five months later, after the summer, and the gains had held up,” said Christine Massey, director of the University of Pennsylvania Institute for Research in Cognitive Science and a study co-author. When the younger students returned as seventh graders in the fall, they scored just as high as they had the previous spring on tests of fractions that they had not seen. Knowing what a fraction represents is one thing, the authors say, but repeatedly seeing and manipulating all those fractions by slicing and cloning drives the concept home once and for all.

The research team found similar results in high school sophomores who practiced with the software that Wynn Haimer used, working to match algebraic equations with graphs.

“I find that often students will try to solve problems by doing only what they’ve been told to do, and if that doesn’t work they give up,” said Joe Wise, a physics instructor at New Roads School, where the study was done. “Here they’re forced to try what makes sense to them and to keep trying. The brain is very good at sorting out patterns if you give it the chance and the right feedback.”

The modules are less demanding than problem sets, but they’re not video games — they’re homework. “To be honest, I’ve got so much to wrap up this year that I haven’t really used the program much,” said Gabe Boros, one of Mr. Wise’s students. “I did try it a couple of times and improved a little, but often I have to guess or use tricks to eliminate the wrong answers.”

Which is the whole idea: Subtle shortcuts are the very stuff of perceptual intuition. With practice, neurons in the visual cortex and elsewhere specialize to identify these signature patterns, and finding them frees up mental resources for deductive reasoning, to check answers or to move on to harder problems. Such perceptual intuition isn’t cheating — it’s what the big-shot experts do. In the case of graphs and equations, it includes making quick judgments about where lines should intercept the axes and about their slope, even when that is not at all obvious.

On the surface at least, this may sound like the approaches that SAT or LSAT prep courses take, using time-saving strategies and informed guessing. But there is a difference, researchers say. The prep courses teach to the test, but perceptual training tools are aimed at the underlying skills — manipulating fractions, graphing equations. “It’s not how well you do, but how well you learn,” as Mr. Wise put it.

Ideally, perceptual training does more than breathe life into abstract principles, the same way that repairing engines instills a lived experience of internal combustion mechanics. It also primes students to apply the principles in other contexts. This ability to transfer, as it’s known, is fundamental to scientific reasoning and is among the highest goals of teachers at all levels.

Here, too, perceptual learning may help. In a series of experiments, researchers at Indiana University have had students practice on software that models scientific principles, like positive feedback loops. In one, middle school students use a mouse to add “slime mold” to a slide and watch as it spreads faster the more they add. The process fuels itself.

“The kids who have seen this situation will transfer it to other positive feedback loops, like global warming,” said Rob Goldstone, director of the cognitive science program at Indiana University. “The more ice that melts, the more heat that’s absorbed into the earth, the warmer it gets, which melts more ice, and so on.”

“Once they have the concept, I can refer back to it,” said Nancy Martin, a science teacher at Jackson Creek Middle School in Bloomington, Ind., who has worked with Dr. Goldstone. “I can say, ‘Remember how the ants worked, or the slime; does that have anything to do with what we’re discussing today?’ ”

In an education system awash with computerized learning tools and pilot programs of all kinds, the future of such perceptual learning efforts is far from certain. Scientists still don’t know the best way to train perceptual intuition, or which specific principles it’s best suited for. And such tools, if they are incorporated into curriculums in any real way, will be subject to the judgment of teachers.

But researchers are convinced that if millions of children can develop a trained eye for video combat games and doctored Facebook photos, they can surely do the same for graphs and equations.

2011年6月1日 星期三

FREE WEBINAR; Rethinking Undergraduate Business Education: Liberal Learning for the Profession

Carnegie Calls for Rethinking Undergraduate Business Education

Rethinking Undergraduate Business Education: Liberal Learning for the Profession

Please join us for a one hour discussion online with panelists:
  • Anne Colby, Consulting Professor at Stanford University, former Senior Scholar, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
  • William M. Sullivan, Senior Scholar at the Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts, Wabash College, former Senior Scholar, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching

Business is the most popular undergraduate major in U.S. higher education. The panelists argue that business education can be strengthened by supporting key elements of liberal learning integrated with business disciplines. They believe that this integration will help students acquire tools for advancing their business careers and also help students understand the place of business in larger institutional contexts, think creatively, and develop wise, ethically grounded professional judgment.

During the broadcast, the presenters will:

  • Articulate their conception of liberal learning
  • Explain why liberal learning is essential for a comprehensive business education
  • Provide examples of effective curricula that integrate liberal and business learning
  • Outline recommendations that will help business students move beyond technical expertise to deeper and more creative understanding of their chosen field, the broader world in which it operates, and the significance of these for their own life choices and directions

This webinar draws from a new Carnegie/Jossey-Bass book, Rethinking Undergraduate Business Education: Liberal Learning for the Profession, by Colby, Sullivan, Thomas Ehrlich and Jonathan R. Dolle with a foreword by Lee S. Shulman.

Space is limited, so REGISTER NOW!