2009年5月26日 星期二

celebrated Leadership Academy?

Principals Younger and Freer, but Raise Doubts in the Schools
By some measures, the New York City principals who have come through the city’s celebrated Leadership Academy lag behind veterans who did not.

Principals Younger and Freer, but Raise Doubts in the Schools

ACADEMY STAR Allison Gaines Pell, 34, a graduate of Brown, Harvard and the city’s Leadership Academy, earned an A at her Brooklyn school.

Published: May 25, 2009

They are younger than their predecessors, have less experience in the classroom and are, most often, responsible for far fewer students. But their salaries are higher and they have greater freedom over hiring and budgets, handling a host of responsibilities formerly shouldered by their supervisors.

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Controlling Interests

New Leadership

This is the third article in a series examining the Bloomberg administration’s record on education as state lawmakers debate whether to renew the 2002 law giving the mayor control of city schools, which expires June 30.

SMALL-SCHOOL FAN Andrew M. L. Turay, right, 57, once head of a 3,000-student school, runs one with 315 pupils.

Ruby Washington/The New York Times

EXPERIENCED Philip Weinberg, 49, has been at his Brooklyn high school since 1986 and principal since 2001.

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Among the most striking transformations of New York’s public school system since Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg took charge in 2002 is that of the role of principal, once the province of middle-aged teachers promoted through the ranks, now often filled by young graduates of top colleges.

“I wanted to change the old system,” Schools Chancellor Joel I. Klein said in an interview. “New leadership is a powerful way to do that.”

One of Mr. Klein’s proudest achievements is luring promising candidates to the toughest schools by providing more autonomy in exchange for accountability through test scores and other data.

But an analysis by The New York Times of the city’s signature report-card system shows that schools run by graduates of the celebrated New York City Leadership Academy — which the mayor created and helped raise more than $80 million for — have not done as well as those led by experienced principals or new principals who came through traditional routes.

A separate Times analysis shows that since 2002, opening hundreds of new schools and raising salaries have swelled the principals’ payroll 43 percent after adjusting for inflation. The average salary among the current 1,500 school leaders tops $133,000, 10 percent higher than their 1,200 counterparts in 2002 in inflation-adjusted dollars, even as the median household income nationally has risen only marginally.

An average of 649 students are under each principal’s purview, compared with 879 six years ago; pay per pupil, then, has jumped to $205 from $138 in 2008 dollars.

Nearly 80 percent of the city’s principals were not on the job in 2001; Chad A. Altman, the 28-year-old head of a Bronx elementary school, was still studying public policy at Carnegie Mellon University when the mayor was petitioning Albany for school control. Indeed, 22 percent of today’s principals are under 40, compared with 6 percent in 2002; about 20 percent of them have less than five years of teaching experience, double the percentage in 2002.

Mr. Klein’s cultivation of a new breed of school leadership is being watched around the country, where many cities are grappling with waves of principal retirements even as more is being asked of public schools.

As New York State lawmakers consider whether to renew the 2002 mayoral control law, which expires June 30, one proposal on the table would revive the district superintendents, now largely powerless, to more closely supervise and support principals.

For all of New York’s recent focus and investment in school leadership, more than a quarter of teachers said in city surveys last spring that they did not trust their principals or consider them effective managers, and more than a third of those leaving the system cited the quality of school leadership as among the main reasons. “Perceptions of principal leadership skills are drivers of attrition,” an internal report concluded.

Teacher turnover has been higher at schools run by Leadership Academy principals — over the summer of 2007, nearly a quarter of these principals lost at least a third of their teachers, compared with 9 percent of other principals — though some see that as evidence the new leaders are shaking things up. Iris Blige, a graduate of the first class of the Leadership Academy, has seen at least eight assistant principals and dozens of teachers leave the Fordham High School of the Arts since she took over in 2004; she was the subject of an angry protest in March.

In interviews with three dozen principals, former principals and education experts, many said the newfound ability to select faculty was invaluable, but painted a portrait of a job that has grown complex and unwieldy.

“You’re a teacher, you’re Judge Judy, you’re a mother, you’re a father, you’re a pastor, you’re a therapist, you’re a nurse, you’re a social worker,” said Maxine Nodel, principal since 2003 of the 481-student Millennium Art Academy in the Bronx. “You’re a curriculum planner, you’re a data gatherer, you’re a budget scheduler, you’re a vision spreader.”

Ms. Nodel, who has taught math, English, science, art and chess over 18 years, earned two A’s in a row under the city’s new school report card system. But, she said, “This is the most exhausted I’ve ever been.”

Brilliance and Mediocrity

Allison Gaines Pell could be the personification of the new principalship. A graduate of Brown University with a master’s degree in education from Harvard, she taught for three years at St. Ann’s, a Brooklyn private school, and two in Syracuse, and worked for educational nonprofit agencies before being fast-tracked to the principal’s office through the Leadership Academy in 2005.

At 34, she is one of 132 current school leaders under age 35, up from 26 in 2002, and one of 237 who have worked in the district less than a decade, up from 54 in 2002. She earns $127,000 a year running a middle school of 278.

Over a few days at her Urban Assembly Academy of Arts and Letters in Fort Greene, Brooklyn, this spring, Ms. Gaines Pell gave out high school acceptance letters, videotaped two lessons, revised the laptop security policy, joined a meeting between the school nurse and a student with a hurt hip, and experienced the joys and headaches of being in charge of her own budget.

Headache: a rumor that when students did not pay for lunch, she would have to make up the shortfall (she has yet to determine whether this is true). Joy: a new computer program — which she could buy without approval from on high — designed to help teachers collaborate online.

“That’s hot!” Ms. Gaines Pell exclaimed to her assistant principal, John O’Reilly. “That’s really hot,” he seconded.

But while Ms. Gaines Pell’s school earned an A from the city this fall, The Times’s analysis shows that Leadership Academy graduates were less than half as likely to get A’s as other principals, and almost twice as likely to earn C’s or worse. Among elementary and middle-school principals on the job less than three years, Academy graduates were about a third as likely to get A’s as those who did not attend the program.

While Academy graduates do tend to be placed in some of the city’s lowest-achieving schools, the report-card system has built-in controls to account for that, emphasizing progress over performance and comparing schools with similar demographics. Still, Sandra J. Stein, chief executive of the Leadership Academy, said the cards — the city’s primary accountability measure — are not a fair gauge of her graduates because, as she put it, “it takes time to reverse a downward trend.”

After five years running primarily on private donations, the Leadership Academy won a city contract last June for up to $10 million a year. Its centerpiece is the Aspiring Principals Program, a 14-month paid boot camp that has graduated 336 people since 2003, 227 of whom are now principals — 15 percent of the total.

One Leadership Academy alumnus was removed from his post this month, pending Education Department investigations, after a public screaming match with the school’s parent coordinator; more than 250 parents had signed a letter citing a “litany of problems” including “increased staff turnover, parent dissatisfaction and general turmoil.” Another was removed upon his arrest in February for driving while intoxicated and fleeing the scene of an accident.

The first independent analysis of the academy’s effectiveness, done at New York University, is due in June. “I think our batting average is quite good,” Mr. Klein said. “Could it improve? I’m sure it could improve.”

Pulling Their Own Strings

Andrew M. L. Turay vividly remembers, back when he was principal of the Bronx’s mammoth Evander Childs High School in 2001, the day an assistant principal who had struggled at another school walked into his office and announced she would now be working with him: superintendent’s orders. “You were the figurehead as a principal, but the actual power was in the superintendent’s office,” he said. “They were pulling the strings.”

Now, as principal of Peace and Diversity Academy, a small high school in the Bronx that he founded in 2004, Mr. Turay not only picks his own staff but decides how to train them. Still cringing over the time he returned to Evander from a required daylong monthly session to find that a student had assaulted a staff member in the cafeteria, Mr. Turay can — and does — choose to skip virtually all meetings outside the office.

Where he oversaw more than 3,000 students at Evander, Mr. Turay now has 315, and makes it his business to know who was just absent for five days (the girl with multiple face piercings), and who is struggling with sexual identity (18 students are openly gay). There is no superintendent regularly visiting; it is up to Mr. Turay to call his network leader — his primary support person — on her cellphone when he needs help. Someone sent by the Education Department descends on the school for a few days at least once every three years and then submits a “quality review” on its shortcomings and successes, but Mr. Turay is judged, in large part, by a thick stack of documents.

Compliance checklists, on items including vision-testing and fire drills. School report cards (he got a B). Parent and teacher surveys. A review of how well he has met his own goals.

Mr. Turay, who is 57 and has worked in city schools for 24 years, prefers the new system, or at least the small-school environment. “I didn’t know kids, I didn’t know parents,” he said of his days at Evander Childs. “I couldn’t tell if I helped anyone, really.”

But the independence that has helped Mr. Turay flourish has tripped up others.

Maria Penaherrera — who started as a substitute teacher 20 years ago and worked her way up to the principal’s office — used her financial freedom to hire four assistant principals at the 900-student Public School 114 in Canarsie, and ran up $150,000 in debt. Then she eliminated three of the positions only to have the fourth assistant principal quit. That left a custodian to take charge in February when a carbon monoxide alarm went off while Ms. Penaherrera was out. She has since been reassigned to a central office post while the Education Department investigates, and did not respond to requests for comment.

Peter McNally, executive vice president of the principals’ union — which has generally supported the mayor’s reforms — said the biggest complaint from members was “that they spend more time looking at the data than in classrooms observing and supporting instruction.” Indeed, many had deep reservations about a system in which, as one principal put it, “my report card is my boss.”

“If teaching and learning become about credits and grades, it’s not about learning,” said Jill Herman, who retired last year after three decades as a teacher, principal and network leader.

Rookies Do Worse

Philip Weinberg walks the halls of Brooklyn’s 1,250-student High School of Telecommunication Arts and Technology like the beloved mayor of a close-knit town, popping into a young math teacher’s classroom, ushering teenagers off the sidewalk after dismissal in a manner both firm and warm. “He’s cool with all the students,” said Anthony Mesa, a senior who took the liberty of adjusting Mr. Weinberg’s scarf.

Mr. Weinberg, 49, started teaching English at the school, in Bay Ridge, in 1986 and became its principal in 2001; several of his staff members are former students. He is one of 255 principals — 17 percent of the total — in the same post as before mayoral control. (The number of rookie principals soared to 20 percent in 2003 and 25 percent in 2004, but has settled down to 12 percent over the past two years.)

The Times’s analysis shows that experience counts — at least on school report cards. Forty-three percent of principals with at least a decade at their schools received A’s last fall (including Mr. Weinberg), compared with 30 percent of those who had been at their schools up to two years.

“The longer you know a story, the better you know the story,” Mr. Weinberg said. “I would hate to have been judged on my first three years as principal.”

In an interview, Mr. Klein said he would like to see good principals stay 8 to 10 years; 5 out of 6, though, have not been around that long. And the first two principals the chancellor cited as models were Shimon Waronker, 40, a Leadership Academy graduate who is on leave from the school system to attend a graduate program at Harvard, and Marc S. Sternberg, 36, a Princeton and Harvard Business School graduate who plans to leave the high school he founded in 2004, Bronx Lab, this summer.

Elana Karopkin left Brooklyn’s Urban Assembly School for Law and Justice last summer, at 32, for a charter school group, saying she was physically and emotionally “exhausted” from what she described as a “Herculean task.”

And Michelle Harring, 62, retired last year after nearly a decade as principal of the Earth School on the Lower East Side, complaining of too much time spent “belaboring the testing statistics” or on the computer as well as bureaucratic reshufflings that left her scrambling to figure out whom to call for what.

“The job had many more pressures coming from lots of different directions, that I often felt took away from my time as a person who supported both teachers and the children in the classroom,” she explained. “I think of C.E.O.’s as people for whom the bottom lines are numbers and profit lines. I don’t think principals should be C.E.O.’s.”

Amy Ellen Schwartz, director of the Institute for Education and Social Policy at New York University, who is heading the Leadership Academy study, wonders whether the school system has constructed “a job description for which there are very few really good candidates.”

“It may be that it’s an impossible job,” she said. “You’re asking for things that don’t often come in the same person.”

2009年5月25日 星期一


台大的"百大維新 "將是一個案

2009年4月27日 星期一



自 從教育部的「頂尖大學計畫」以來,台灣大學便以「進入百大」作為目標。在校長的每次致詞、在校門口的倒數計時器、在舊體兩側的布條,「百大」如同夢魔般迴 盪在行政人員的腦袋。每次的「上海交通大學」「英國泰晤士報」的評鑑報告公佈時,就好像小學生等著發期末考考試般,擔心考不好會沒辦法跟父母(教育部?) 交代。

但台大真的想進入百大嗎?翻開台大頂尖大學報告書,裡面洋洋灑灑寫著各種目標與方案。一個個仔細檢驗,卻又發現裡面矛盾重重:劃定 了校園永久綠地,卻又不斷打破規則蓋大樓;要落實社會責任,但是服務課程卻還是在掃校園;說看重體育活動,但排球場的練習牆拆除了;說要建制校園安全系 統,卻又放任駐警隊人數降低。


缺 乏核心價值的「前進百大」,就只會變成盲目的「符合標準」。校方提出了「挖角他校優秀學者」、「給予獎金鼓勵發表」、「提高獎學金吸引國際學生」等。數字 就算進步了,實質內容有任何改變嗎?更慘的是,我們可能因為這些政策付出代價:鼓勵SSCI的發表造成本土問題的拋棄、男十三舍舍胞失去了住宿的地點。

我 們空拿著百大假裝做為我們的方向。但我們誰都知道那是一個天大的笑話。我們內心都明白形式主義的追求指標是無意義的,但是我們也講不出什麼才是真正該追求 的。但被虛假的百大幽靈纏繞的行政高層們,卻因此喪失了面對真實問題的勇氣。面對校園內實實在在的各種議題:學生對於體育場地的抱怨、通識教育過於零散、 服務課程淪為清掃校園,校方都視而不見、避而不談—因為,這並沒有列入評鑑項目!



1 意見


2009年5月23日 星期六



還好 我們的生命中還有些老師

『台灣戴明圈:2008年東海戴明學者講座』 再續前緣XI





馬總統一抵達校慶大會會場即受到全體師生的熱烈歡迎,他在致詞時指出,台中技術學院從最早的台中商職一路升格為台中商專、台中技術學院,在校長李淙柏的帶 領下,還要往技術大學邁進,創校90年來,孕育15萬名校友,政、商、教育等各行各業都有傑出校友,如蔡鈴蘭、台中市魚市場董事長林仁德、歌手范逸臣等。

馬總統指出,他向來重視教育,在參選總統時就提出12年國教,要如何從9年國教延長為12年國教,就要從技職教育開始,重振技職教育很重要,今年以前,台 灣教育經費佔國內生產毛額的4.4%,希望往後每年都增加0.2個百分點,約新台幣240億元,而98年度就增加260億元,比原來的240億元還多。

馬總統表示,過去推行的教改政策理念正確,但執行時有一些問題,不夠重視技職教育,政府將推動技職教育再造方案,除了增加相關教育經費,也會強化教師實務 教學能力,以建立技專發展特色,培育五育並重的技職學生,讓技職體系重振昔日風華,技職做得好,傳統產業才有源源不絕的人才。


2009年5月14日 星期四

教育人行道 13號 On Educating, No. 13

教育人行道 13On Educating, No. 13

2008/1/20 (創刊:2008/01/05) 主編:鍾漢清





這種善用說故事創作的智慧,教堂中最常應用。這也難怪,{新約}上的耶穌,就是個善用比喻、故事的傳道者。最近經營管理界也有人認為,「說故事」可能是最佳的領導方法,於是就有人出書,把以往流行的「到處走動來管理」,修正為「到處說故事來管理(Managing by Storying Around: A New Method of Leadership ... "Managing by Storying Around" means telling stories to communicate the important points that advice, demands, and rah-rah can't convey.),中譯本名為「小故事、妙管理」-- 市場反應非常好。書中許多故事都反映作者公司的文化與人情味,感人,難怪該公司獲得美國國家品質獎。


J. Dyson , 1923-)
的自傳《宇宙波瀾》(Disturbing the Universe, 1979)的一則故事。他憶起小時太沈迷於數學的學習,他母親怕他「從未有時間交朋友,不知道與別人分享成功、喜悅等」,就跟他講了哥德《浮士德》第二部一小段:

再說,唸說故事也是一種極好的『「教」「學」相長』過程。我舉一例:名雕塑家亨利 摩爾(Henry Moore, 1898-1986)有一《王與后》(King and Queen (1952-1953))的傑作,該作品充滿「王者的氣派」,又有種自信的安然,極為奧妙複雜。後來,他才意識到,這是由於他每天晚上給女兒瑪麗講故事的經驗,因為當時所讀的故事,大多與王、后和王子有關。

11.22. )


Storytelling by Claudia Royal, Broadman Press, 1955


EDUTAINER 由下兩字合成:姑且稱為「教育娛樂家」

educator Show phonetics
noun [C] MAINLY US
a person who teaches people

entertainer Show phonetics
noun [C]
someone whose job is to entertain people by singing, telling jokes, etc.


Becoming a Product Designer 可悲的翻譯

這本書很值得讀讀...不過翻譯實在令人噴飯....(如何成為產品設計大師 , (美)布魯斯·漢納(Bruce Hannah)著, 上海人民美術出版社2007)中附的 pdf檔中關於”展覽會場”之設計者的說明。

dandelion (蒲公英,學名Taraxacum,又稱黃花地丁,是亞熱帶常見的一種一年或兩年生草本植物。蒲公英的英文名字Dandelion來自法語dent-de-lion,意思是獅子牙齒,是因為蒲公英葉子 ...

長庚大學表示,該校每年都有許多社團投入服務工作,寒 暑假期間更有許多學生社團犧牲假期玩樂的時間,到山地 進行衛生教育服務、或從事返鄉營隊的服務,社團表現成 績斐然,如「蒲公英工作隊」及「羅卡達山地醫療工作隊 」更於「衛生署山地離島及偏遠地區暑期大專青年 社區部落 ...

介紹蒲公英又稱尿床草,對於利尿可是有非常好的效果,它具有豐富的維生素AC及礦物質,對消化不良、便秘都有改善的作用,另外葉子還有改善濕疹、舒緩皮膚炎、關節不適 ...













  Build me a son, O Lord, who will be strong enough to know when he is weak; and brave enough to face himself when he is afraid; one who will be proud and unbending in honest defeat, and humble and gentle in victory.

  Build me a son whose wishes will not take the place of deeds; a son who will know Thee -- and that to know himself is the foundation stone of knowledge.

  Lead him, I pray, not in the path of ease and comfort, but under the stress and spur of difficulties and. Here let him learn to stand up in the storm; here let him learn compassion for those who fail.

  Build me a son whose heart will be clear, whose goal will be high, a son who will master himself before he seeks to master other men, one who will reach into the future, yet never forget the past.

  And after all theses things are his, add, I pray, enough of a sense of humor, so that he may always be serious, yet never take himself too seriously. Give him humility, so that he may always remember the simplicity of true greatness, the open mind of true wisdom and the meekness of true strength.

  Then I, his father, will dare to whisper, "I have not lived in vain!

單字 Vocabulary

1.unbending (adj) [] 不屈不撓的 2. deed (n) [ ] 行動

3. compassion (n) [] 憐恤、同情 4. meekness (n) [] 溫順 

5. whisper (v) [] 低聲說出

小叮嚀 Something to Remember

Listen to Father's heart carefully and let His words become the light of your life. 聆聽父親的心,讓他的話成為你生命中的明燈。


最近之知道某教授平均一周論文一篇 號稱品質也不錯
其實台灣的數據統計都只是"量" 談不上質

如果比國際"水準"不足 就關起門來說我校"全國第一"
嘿嘿 了不起

財團法人高等教育評鑑中心上週公布「2009年臺灣ESI論文統計結果」 。臺灣



指標(Essential Science Indicators,簡稱ESI)能快速提供客觀數據,作為





順序與原文不同 (hc)


本文採用ESI資料庫,而該資料庫存在某些問題,必須加以說明。ESI的資料來自於Web of Science(簡稱WOS),而WOS存有許多著錄錯誤的情形,可能會影響到ESI的正確性,如WOS將臺灣中山大學某些論文與中國大陸中山大學論文混 淆在一起,臺灣清華大學和北京清華大學亦有類似問題。

在高被引文章上,亦有著錄錯誤的情形,如長庚大學除CHANG GUNG UNIV寫法外,尚有CHANG GUNG MED COLL等寫法;又如國立中央大學的其中一篇文章,在地址欄位被ESI誤寫為Natl Chung Yuan Univ等狀況。本研究以國別限制、增加權威控制及人工判別等方式加以校正,故本次公布之2009年數據與前期比較略有變動,須特別注意。  

臺灣31校進榜 較去年增加7校




除新進榜學校外,亦有6所大學增加新學門,其中藥理學與毒物學學門 增加2校(高雄醫學大學、國立成功大學);其餘學門皆增加1校,分別為植物與動物科學(高雄醫學大學)、化學(高雄醫學大學)、生物與生化(國立成功大 學)、臨床醫學(國立中興大學)、材料科學(中原大學)、農業科學(中山醫學大學),及今年第一次進榜的分子生物與遺傳學門(國立臺灣大學)。

統計結果也發現國立聯合大學今年在平均被引次數排名表現突出,主要 原因為11年論文數193篇,被引用次數高達4,025次之故。該校在高被引論文比例方面,11年論文數193篇中即有23篇屬高被引文章,其被引次數 2,320次,占總被引次數的57.64%;教師平均論文數方面,由於該校專任教師數共214位,不分學門論文數共193篇,故教師平均論文數為 0.90。

一國進入同一學門的學校數量多,代表其為該國研究質量較佳之學門; 反之,一國的學校若僅一兩所進入同一學門,則代表該學門在該國並未有全面的質量發展,或該學門具獨特性及專精性,使其進入的學校數少。觀察臺灣31所大 學,進入學校數最多的學門依序為工程學門21校,其次為臨床醫學學門和化學學門各13校,而後為材料科學學門的11校。



本文詳細說明每個指標的意義和限制,以傳達較為正確的解釋方式。同 時,希望讀者在閱讀時將重點放在分學門的表現上,可藉由學門活躍性指數瞭解各校發展重點,由相對影響力指數瞭解各學門的大致研究水平。值得注意的是,若該 校僅是學門活躍性指數偏高,但相對影響力卻低於世界水準,就不算具有真正的優勢。

表一 國內31所大學2009年ESI論文數及世界排名表

表二 國內31所大學2009年ESI被引次數及世界排名表

表三 國內31所大學2009年ESI平均被引次數及世界排名表

表四 國內31所大學2009年ESI高被引論文數及教師平均論文數統計表

表五 國內31所大學2009年進入ESI各學門之學術表現、學門活躍性指數及相對影響力指數統計表


在進行機構或國家學術評量時,基本科學指標(Essential Science Indicators,簡稱ESI)能快速提供客觀數據,作為長期追蹤學術表現之用,故常被視為重要參考工具之一。本成果係財團法人高等教育評鑑中心基金 會之研究計畫,2009年第三次進行ESI論文統計,以ESI資料庫完整11年之各種論文統計數據(收錄年份為1998年1月1日至2008年12月31 日),呈現臺灣所有進入世界論文被引次數前1%之學校及其學門,藉此瞭解國內大學學術論文質和量的表現,進而掌握臺灣研究表現在世界上的位置及其變化狀 況。


本文沿用2008年7種評比指標進行統計,為降低規模影響,亦持續 採用平均被引次數(Citations Per Papers)與其世界排名、教師平均論文數、學門活躍性指數(Activity Index)及相對影響力指數(CPP/FCSm)等指標,提供更多元的各校學術研究成果統計。採用指標分別說明如下:

1.論文數(Papers):論文數代表在該段ESI收錄時間中,以該 校名義發表之論文總量,可表現學術研究成果的產量。然各學門論文發表情形差異頗大,以1998年1月1日至2008年12月31日之數據為例,臨床醫學 11年論文數高達2,026,141篇,材料科學為437,424篇,而太空科學僅121,631篇,顯示不同學門論文發表數量相當懸殊。


3.平均被引次數(Citations Per Papers):平 均被引次數為各校每篇論文之平均被引用率,主要衡量其每篇論文被引用程度或影響程度,一般而言論文數越高,其被引用的機率也越高。此一指標可同時考量論文 數和被引次數,然此指標單獨使用很容易產生偏頗。例如在不分學門中,平均被引次數排名前五名國家,分別為百慕達、巴拿馬、瑞士、美國與甘比亞,其中百慕達 及甘比亞論文總數不到1,000篇,與美國3,048,247篇相去甚遠,與印象中學術表現狀況有相當落差。

此現象在分學門評比時更為凸顯,如在ESI的臨床醫學學門中,平均 被引次數排名前20名的機構,其11年論文數皆在6篇以下,甚至前6所機構僅發表1篇論文。同時,在ESI的22個學門中,其平均被引次數最高為分子生物 及遺傳學(25.13次)和免疫學(20.92次),最低為電腦科學(3.15次)和數學(3.07次)。各學門平均被引次數高低落差相當大,再次顯示必 須謹慎使用平均被引次數指標。

4.高被引論文數(Highly Cited Papers):高被引論文數係指在ESI中各學門完整11年之論文被引次數達前1%之文章數目,不僅反映出論文的品質與重要性,亦是論文在國際上影響力的直接表現。本文同時呈現高被引論文比例,依據各校高被引論文數占該校發表之總論文數之比例,可瞭解該校高被引文章的比重。

5.教師平均論文數:教師平均 論文數係指各校11年總論文數除以各校全職教師數,即該校每位教師平均發表論文篇數,此指標可平衡規模較大學校的論文數和被引次數優勢。此次全職教師數使 用教育部公布的「97學年度大專院校校別專任教師數」資料為依據。值得注意的是,此一指標雖可平衡規模優勢,但對於擁有較大規模人文社會科學的學校較為不 利。

6.學門活躍性指數(Activity Index,簡稱AI):學門活躍性指數為各校於該學門論文量與全球該學門整體論文量相對比值,其公式如下:



當相對影響力指數介於0.8至1.2時,表示該學門論文品質具有世界平均水準,大於1.2則表示高於世界平 均水準,可藉以瞭解各校較為優勢的學門,通常被視為論文品質的指標。然此指標較適合在分學門評比時使用,在不分學門的校級比較中,例如以醫學院為主的學 校,其平均被引次數本來就偏高,易使該機構相對影響力指數提高。

2009年5月12日 星期二



2009年5月11日 星期一

亞洲區大學榜》港大第1 北大第10 台大哈 哈ㄚ



亞洲區大學榜》港大第1 北大第10 台大22


泰晤士報高等教育特刊自2004年起每年公布全球大學排名,這項調查由QS機構(Quacquarelli Symonds)執行調查研究,根據各大學的研究、教職員人數、國際知名度、教學品質等評等與分析。

今年QS首次把亞洲地區獨立出來評比,台灣有九所大學名列亞洲大學百大排行榜,除了台大,有三所大學在50名之內,分別是清華大學(40名)、成功大學 (43名)和陽明大學(47);中山大學、台灣科技大學、交通大學、中央大學、長庚大學也進入百大,其中排名91的長庚大學是台灣唯一進入百大排行榜的私 立大學。

QS創辦人奎魁瑞里(Nunzio Quacquarelli)表示,台灣的大學表現優良,師資和評鑑結果都相當強勁。這項結果,加上泰晤士高等教育的QS世界大學排行榜,顯見台灣的大學可躋身世界優質高等教育行列。台大在QS世界大學排行榜名列124。



2009年5月5日 星期二

An obvious proof of our failure is the shocking "Shanghai Rating" for universities.


譬如說 上海交通大學的世界大學排行版
我的法國朋友jm 來電
An obvious proof of our failure is the shocking "Shanghai Rating" for universities.

"新華網 - Beijing,China
一 家旅遊網站對歐洲遊客開展“歐洲城市調查”,給包括歐洲國家首都在內的旅遊城市一分高下。3日公布的調查結果顯示,英國首都倫敦表現不盡如人意,在眾多項 目中墊底,而其他城市則各有千秋。 世界最大旅遊在線社區“旅行顧問”TripAdviser.com對2376名歐洲遊客開展調查, ..."



2009年5月4日 星期一

The US needs to raise its educational sights


The US needs to raise its educational sights

By Stacey Childress 2009-05-04

Unlike most other developed countries, the US does not have national academic standards outlining what each student must learn to graduate from high school. In fact, it is the opposite, with each of the 50 states setting the bar wherever it wants – and, in many states, that is too low.

When standards in one state are lower than those in another, longstanding inequities are perpetuated every September as new groups of kindergarteners take their first steps into school. With US 15-year-

olds ranked 25th among 30 industrialised nations on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's international mathematics exam and 24th in science, the time has come to put aside ideology in favour of the next generation's ability to compete globally.

Unfortunately, President George W. Bush's No Child Left Behind act is a big part of the problem. Although it has played a vital role in increasing accountability for student learning, the bill has had unintended consequences. When it was signed into law in 2001, a number of states already had standards for local school districts, but many did not.

To get the bill passed, its sponsors allowed states to come up with their own standards and to develop tests to assess student mastery of those standards. But since NCLB threatened draconian intervention and loss of funding if targets were not met, states had incentives to forgo more rigorous standards in favour of ones districts were more likely to meet. Thus our current dilemma.

What is the country to do? President Barack Obama and Arne Duncan, his secretary of education, are talking to state governors about creating a set of voluntary national standards. We believe that to ensure the global competitiveness of the US workforce, any set of standards must focus on rigorous content knowledge in reading, maths and science, as well as on students' abilities to apply that knowledge to critical thinking and problem solving. One viable option is to adapt the OECD international benchmarks for 15-year-olds to US needs and retrofit them for younger children.

For voluntary standards to take hold, states must have meaningful reasons to embrace them. One way is to make adopting them a prerequisite for accessing investment capital from Mr Duncan's $5bn discretionary fund – part of the $100bn in education spending included in the president's economic stimulus package. The federal Department of Education could also pay for the development and scoring of common assessments, thereby freeing the significant amount of money tied up in the overheads needed to maintain 50 different standards and testing regimes. These state resources could then be redirected toward innovations to help students meet the rigorous new standards, leading to a cycle of improvement.

Mr Obama has set a goal for the US to have the world's highest proportion of college graduates by 2020. Having slipped from first to 16th since 1995, we are a long way from that. Agreeing to stiff national standards for college readiness is one important step towards the goal.

Eight years ago, no one thought building agreement for national standards was possible, which is why they were not a part of the NCLB compromise. Is it possible now? Only if a broad coalition of stakeholders demands them.

Pressure from many quarters could evolve into a movement for change that could force the US's political leaders to break away from the old arguments that historically have distracted us from keeping our national promise of public education as the “great equaliser” of access to unlimited opportunities. The creation and adoption of voluntary national standards will raise the educational sights of our next generation and guarantee America's economic competitiveness for the long term. Stacey Childress and David Thomas are on the faculty of Harvard Business School.

This article is adapted from their book with Denis Doyle, ‘Leading for Equity: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Montgomery County Public Schools', to be published in July by the Harvard Education Press


作者:哈佛商学院教师斯特西•奇尔德雷斯(By Stacey Childress)为英国《金融时报》撰稿 2009-05-04


如果一个州的标准低于另一个州,那么每年9月新一批幼儿园的孩子跨入学校大门时即将面临的长期不公平待遇就会永远存在。在经合组织(OECD)的数 学和自然科学国际考试中,美国15岁青少年的得分在30个工业化国家中分别位列第25位和第24位。现在我们是时候抛开意识形态,为让下一代具备在全球竞 争的能力而努力了。

不幸的是,美国前总统乔治•布什(George W. Bush)的《不让一个孩子掉队》法案(No Child Left Behind)是造成问题的一个重大因素。尽管该法案在加强学生学习的责任制度方面发挥了重要作用,但却产生了意想不到的后果。2001年该法案得以签署 形成法律时,许多州已为当地学区设定了标准,但许多州还没有。


这个国家该做些什么呢?美国总统巴拉克•奥巴马(Barack Obama)和教育部长阿恩•邓肯(Arne Duncan)正与各州州长就建立一套非强制性国家标准进行讨论。我们相信,要确保美国劳动力在全球的竞争力,任何标准都必须着重关注阅读、数学和自然科 学的严格学科知识,以及学生应用知识进行批判性思维和解决问题的能力。一个可行的选择方案是,改编经合组织适用于15岁青少年的国际标准以适应美国的需 要,并再对其进行改动,以适应年龄更小的儿童。

非强制性标准要为大家所接受,各州必须有采纳它们的充分理由。一种方法是将采用这些标准作为得到来自邓肯50亿美元自由支配资金投资的先决条件。这 是1000亿美元教育支出计划的一部分,被纳入了美国总统的经济刺激方案。美国联邦教育部(Department of Education)也可以为制定共同评估体系和评分工作出资,这样就可以解放维持50个不同标准和考试制度所需的管理费用所占用的大笔资金。接下来,这 些州立资源可以转而用于帮助学生达到这些严格新标准的创新活动,进而带来一个改善周期。



来自许多领域的压力可能会演变成一场改革运动,这可能会迫使美国政治领袖放弃旧的观点,这种观点一直在分散我们的注意力,使得我们对公共教育的国家 承诺未能成为获得无限机会的“重要平衡器”。建立并采用非强制性国家标准将改善我们下一代的教育前景并保证美国的长期经济竞争力。

斯特西•奇尔德雷斯(Stacey Childress)和大卫•托马斯(David Thomas)是哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)教师。本文摘自二人与丹尼斯•道尔(Denis Doyle)合著的Leading for Equity: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Montgomery County Public Schools一书。本书将于今年7月由哈佛教育出版社(Harvard Education Press)出版。